Thank you for your answer, but I don't want to use a heighmap-file because I want to manage the terraindata myself (ITerrainSceneNode seems not to support this).
The way it works now:
1.) I generate me random terrain data to have something nice to show (thanks to the diamond square thing...) which I save into a type created for them
2.) I use sceneManager.addHillPlaneMesh:IAnimatedMesh(...) to create a suitable mesh for my terrain in the right size
3.) I maniplulate this IAnimatedMesh of step 2 to get my terrain mesh using the terraindata
4.) To make the whole thing a little bit faster I create a OctreeSceneNode of the AnimatedMesh using sceneManager.addOctreeSceneNode:IMeshSceneNode(...) which will be the final, shown terrain mesh
To manipulate the terrain-octree I make my manipulations on the AnimatedMesh and repeat step 4. The problem is, that the rendering of the created terrain like this, also in sizes like 32*32, is very slow (never higher than 30 FPS) while the terrain sample (size 256*256) is running with 300 FPS.
So the general question: How to be able to use the ITerrainSceneNode-Mesh optimizations on an manipulatable IMesh or IAnimatedMesh?
I hope you can help me, if needed I will also public the source here so that you can test it yourself.